What is PCOS?

What is PCOS? Polycystic ovary pattern (PCOS) is a condition that affects a woman’s hormone situations.
Women with PCOS produce advanced-than-normal quantities of manly hormones.

This hormone imbalance causes their body to skip menstrual ages and makes it harder for them to get pregnant.

PCOS also causes hair growth on the face and body and sparseness. And it can contribute to long- term health problems like diabetes and heart complaint.

Birth control Capsules and diabetes medicines (which combat insulin resistance, a PCOS symptom) can help fix the hormone imbalance and ameliorate symptoms.

Read on for a look at the possible causes of PCOS and its possible goods on a woman’s body.

What is PCOS?

PCOS is a problem with hormones that affects women during their childbearing years (ages 15 to 44). Between 2.2 and 26.7 percent of women in this age group have PCOS (12Trusted Source).

Many women have PCOS but don’t know it. In one study, up to 70 percent of women with PCOS hadn’t been diagnosed (2Trusted Source).

PCOS affects a woman’s ovaries, the reproductive organs that produce estrogen and progesterone — hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle. The ovaries also produce a small amount of male hormones called androgens.

The ovaries release eggs to be fertilized by a man’s sperm. The release of an egg each month is called ovulation.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are produced in the pituitary gland, control ovulation.

FSH stimulates the ovary to produce a follicle — a sac that contains an egg — and then LH triggers the ovary to release a mature egg.

PCOS is a “syndrome,” or group of symptoms that affects the ovaries and ovulation. Its three main features are:

  • cysts in the ovaries
  • high levels of male hormones
  • irregular or skipped periods

In PCOS, numerous small, fluid-filled sacs grow inside the ovaries. The word “ polycystic” means “ countless excrescencies.”

These sacs are really follicles, each one containing an immature egg. The eggs noway develop enough to spark ovulation.

The lack of ovulation alters situations of estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH. Progesterone situations are lower than usual, while androgen situations are advanced than usual.

Extra manly hormones disrupt the menstrual cycle, so women with PCOS get smaller ages than usual.

PCOS isn’t a new condition. Italian physician Antonio Vallisneri first described its symptoms in 1721 (3Trusted Source).



Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects up to almost 27 percent of women during their childbearing years (4). It involves cysts in the ovaries, high levels of male hormones, and irregular periods.

What is PCOS?

What causes it?

Croakers do n’t know exactly what causes PCOS. They believe that high situations of manly hormones help the ovaries from producing hormones and making eggs typically.

Genes, insulin resistance, and inflammation have all been linked to redundant androgen product.


Studies show that PCOS runs in families (5).

It’s likely that many genes — not just one — contribute to the condition (6).


Insulin resistance

Up to 70 percent of women with PCOS have insulin resistance, meaning that their cells ca n’t use insulin duly (7Trusted Source).

Insulin is a hormone the pancreas produces to help the body use sugar from foods for energy.

When cells ca n’t use insulin duly, the body’s demand for insulin increases. The pancreas makes further insulin to compensate. Redundant insulin triggers the ovaries to produce further manly hormones.

Rotundity is a major cause of insulin resistance. Both rotundity and insulin resistance can increase your threat for type 2 diabetes(8Trusted Source).



Women with PCOS frequently have increased situations of inflammation in their body.

Being fat can also contribute to inflammation. Studies have linked redundant inflammation to advanced androgen situations(9Trusted Source).




Doctors don’t know exactly what causes PCOS. They believe it stems from factors such as genes, insulin resistance, and higher levels of inflammation in the body.

Common symptoms of PCOS


Some women start seeing symptoms around the time of their first period. Others only discover they’ve PCOS after they ’ve gained a lot of weight or they ’ve had trouble getting pregnant.

The most common PCOS symptoms are:

  • Irregular periods: A lack of ovulation prevents the uterine filling from slipping every month. Some women with PCOS get smaller than eight ages a time or none at all.
  • Heavy bleeding: The uterine filling builds up for a longer period of time, so the ages you do get can be heavier than normal.
  • Hair growth: More than 70 percent of women with this condition grow hair on their face and body — including on their back, belly, and chest (11). Excess hair growth is called hirsutism.
  • Acne: Manly hormones can make the skin soapy than usual and beget flights on areas like the face, casket, and upper back.
  • Weight gain: Up to 80 percent of women with PCOS are overweight or have obesity (11).
  • Male pattern baldness: Hair on the scalp gets thinner and may fall out.
  • Darkening of the skin: Dark patches of skin can form in body crimps like those on the neck, in the groin, and under the guts.
  • Headaches: Hormone changes can trigger headaches in some women.



PCOS can disrupt the menstrual cycle, leading to fewer periods. Acne, hair growth, weight gain, and dark skin patches are other symptoms of the condition.

How PCOS affects your body

Having higher-than-normal androgen levels can affect your fertility and other aspects of your health.


To get pregnant, you have to ovulate. Women who do n’t ovulate regularly do n’t release as numerous eggs to be fertilized. PCOS is one of the leading causes of gravidity in women(12).

Metabolic syndrome

Up to 80 percent of women with PCOS are overweight or have obesity (13Trusted Source). Both obesity and PCOS increase your risk for:

  • high blood sugar
  • high blood pressure
  • low HDL “good” cholesterol
  • high LDL “bad” cholesterol

Together, these factors are called metabolic syndrome, and they increase the risk for:

  • heart disease
  • diabetes
  • stroke


Sleep apnea

This condition causes frequent pauses in breathing during the night, which interrupts sleep.

Sleep apnea is more common in women who are fat — especially if they also have PCOS.

The threat for sleep apnea is 5 to 10 times advanced in women who have both rotundity and PCOS than in those without PCOS(14).


Endometrial cancer

During ovulation, the uterine filling sheds. However, the filling can make up, If you don’t ovulate every month.
A thickened uterine filling can increase your threat for endometrial cancer(15).


Both hormonal changes and symptoms like unwanted hair growth can negatively affect your feelings. Numerous with PCOS ultimately witness depression and anxiety(16).



Hormone imbalances can affect a woman’s health in many ways. PCOS can increase the risk of infertility, metabolic syndrome, sleep apnea, endometrial cancer, and depression.

How PCOS is diagnosed

Doctors typically diagnose PCOS in women who have at least two of these three symptoms (17Trusted Source):

  • high androgen levels
  • irregular menstrual cycles
  • cysts in the ovaries

Your croaker should also ask whether you’ve had symptoms like acne, face and body hair growth, and weight gain.

A pelvic test can look for any problems with your ovaries or other corridors of your reproductive tract. During this test, your croaker inserts gloved fritters into your vagina and checks for any growths in your ovaries or uterus.

Blood tests check for advanced-than-normal situations of manly hormones.

You might also have blood tests to check your cholesterol, insulin, and triglyceride situations to estimate your threat for affiliated conditions like heart complaints and diabetes.

An ultrasound uses sound swells to look for unusual follicles and other problems with your ovaries and uterus.



Croakers diagnose PCOS if women have at least two of three main symptoms — grandly androgen situations, irregular ages, and excrescencies in the ovaries. A pelvic test, blood tests, and ultrasound can confirm the opinion.


Pregnancy and PCOS

PCOS interrupts the normal menstrual cycle and makes it harder to get pregnant. Between 70 and 80 percent of women with PCOS have fertility problems(18Trusted Source).

This condition can also increase the trouble for gravidity complications.

Women with PCOS are twice as likely as women without the condition to deliver their baby unseasonably. They ’re also at lower trouble for confinement, high blood pressure, and enceinte diabetes.

Still, women with PCOS can get pregnant using fertility treatments that meliorate ovulation. Losing weight and lowering blood sugar situations can meliorate your chances of having a healthy gravidity.




PCOS can make it harder to get pregnant and increase your threat for gestation complications and confinement. Weight loss and other treatments can ameliorate your chances of having a healthy gestation.


Diet and lifestyle tips to treat PCOS

Treatment for PCOS generally starts with life changes like weight loss, diet, and exercise.

Losing just 5 to 10 percent of your body weight can help regulate your menstrual cycle and ameliorate PCOS symptoms(1120Trusted Source). Weight loss can also:

  • improve cholesterol levels
  • lower insulin
  • reduce heart disease and diabetes risks

Any diet that helps you lose weight can help your condition. Still, some diets may have advantages over others.

Studies comparing diets for PCOS have plant that low carbohydrate diets are effective for both weight loss and lowering insulin situations.

A low glycemic indicator ( low GI) diet that gets the utmost carbohydrates from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains helps regulate the menstrual cycle better than a regular weight loss diet(21).

Many studies have a plant that 30 twinkles of moderate-intensity exercise at least 3 days a week can help women with PCOS lose weight. Losing weight with exercise also improves ovulation and insulin situations

Exercise is indeed more salutary when combined with a healthy diet. Diet plus exercise helps you lose further weight than either intervention alone, and it lowers your pitfalls for diabetes and heart complaint (23Trusted Source).

There’s some substantiation that acupuncture can help with perfecting PCOS, but further exploration is demanded(24Trusted Source).



PCOS treatment starts with lifestyle changes like diet and exercise. Losing just 5 to 10 percent of your body weight if you’re overweight can help improve your symptoms.

Common medical treatments

Birth control Capsules and other specifics can help regulate the menstrual cycle and treat PCOS symptoms like hair growth and acne.

Birth control

Taking progestin daily can:

  • restore a normal hormone balance
  • regulate ovulation
  • relieve symptoms like excess hair growth
  • protect against endometrial cancer

These hormones come in a pill, patch, or vaginal ring.



Metformin (Glucophage, Fortamet) is a medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It also treats PCOS by perfecting insulin situations.

One study plant that taking metformin while making changes to diet and exercise improves weight loss, lowers blood sugar and restores a normal menstrual cycle better than changes to diet and exercise alone(25).



Clomiphene (Clomid) is a fertility medicine that can help women with PCOS get pregnant.

It’s important to note that, as you ’re agitating family planning, to keep in mind that clomiphene increases the chances for halves and other multiple births(26).

Hair removal medications

Many treatments can help get relieved of unwanted hair or stop it from growing.

Eflornithine (Vaniqa) cream is a traditional medicine that slows hair growth. Ray hair junking and electrolysis can get relieve of unwanted hair on your face and body.


Surgery can be an option to ameliorate fertility if other treatments do n’t work. Ovarian drilling is a procedure that makes bitsy holes in the ovary with a ray or thin heated needle to restore normal ovulation.


Birth control Capsules and the diabetes medicine metformin can help bring back a normal menstrual cycle. Clomiphene and surgery ameliorate fertility in women with PCOS. Hair junking specifics can help women remove unwanted hair.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if:

  • You’ve missed periods, and you’re not pregnant.
  • You have symptoms of PCOS, such as hair growth on your face and body.
  • You’ve been trying to get pregnant for more than 12 months but haven’t been successful.
  • You have symptoms of diabetes, such as excess thirst or hunger, blurred vision, or unexplained weight loss.

Still, don’t stay 12 months to see a specialist to be estimated,

If your ages are formerly irregular or absent and you’re trying to get pregnant. Also, keep in mind that if you don’t wish to get pregnant, irregular or absent ages aren’t bear control in themselves. (27).

It may still be possible to get pregnant indeed under these conditions. It’s stylish to use contraception in this case indeed if you have PCOS. 

Still, plan regular visits with your primary care croaker, If you have PCOS. You’ll need regular tests to check for diabetes, high blood pressure, and other possible complications.

Still, you can view croakers in your area through the fitnesscoffeeusa, If you’re concerned about your PCOS and don’t formerly have an anendocrinologist.com FindCare tool.




See your doctor if your body has skipped periods, or you have other PCOS symptoms like hair growth on your face or body. Also, see a doctor if you’ve been trying to get pregnant for 12 months or more without success.

The bottom line

PCOS can disrupt a woman’s menstrual cycles and make it harder to get pregnant. High situations of mannish hormones also lead to unwanted symptoms like hair growth on the face and body.

Life interventions are the first treatments croakers recommend for PCOS, and they constantly work well.
Weight loss can treat PCOS symptoms and ameliorate the odds of getting pregnant. Diet and aerobic exercise are two effective ways to lose weight.

Specifics are an option if life changes don’t work. Birth control capsules and metformin can both restore further normal menstrual cycles and relieve PCOS symptoms.

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